Page 17, T-belt Timing for Maximum Thrust

April 29, 2020 (T-belt Timing)

Now that the T-belt is installed & working with two flexplates, the question of how to time the two flexplates is at hand.
Since there is negligible backward push, it is all about “maximizing” and “smoothing” the forward thrust.

Observations made are as follows:
1- The closer the two flexplates are timed together, the forward push increases but so does the “pulsation” effect of the drive.
2- With the timing set at 180 degrees, the pulsation is very low but so is the forward thrust. 90 degrees does work, but I am not very pleased with the forward thrust & it almost seems that the two halves are fighting one another.
3- Setting the timing to approximately 30 degrees apart (12 & 1 o’clock positions) is very promising.
4- Although testing is necessary to state this conclusively, bringing the clock positioning closer together increases the thrust power more than a simple ratio would explain. If it were a “simple” ratio, clocked or timed at 180 degrees should produce ½ of the thrust but this does not seem to be the case. Since we are dealing with moving weights, rotating assemblies, and linear thrust, it would be logical to assume a formula must be used to calculate the thrust ad different timing positions.
I will be locking the positions of the stationary gears to their axles very soon to ensure the positions do not drift while running. 
That will be the very next step toward a road test!

Page 16, Timing Chain or Timing Belt?

April 28, 2020 (To Chain or To Belt, That Is The Question)

Since identifying the need to eliminate the belt-slip/speed-variation problem and because I want two flexplate assemblies synchronized and both turning CW, either a roller chain or a toothed belt has to be used.

The dilemma was in deciding which would be better.

I really like roller chains because they are a very forgiving utilitarian design which will work in the harshest conditions, even if not perfectly tight or aligned. The downside is that they are heavy, noisy & require regular lubrication.

I like toothed belts (t-belts) because they eliminate the downsides of a roller chain, i.e. they are light, quiet and do not require lubrication. The t-belt downside is that they are rather “finicky”, they need to be well aligned, tight and clean.

 After much consideration, I am installing a toothed timing belt for this prototype. If it proves to be too troublesome it will be replaced with roller chain & matching sprockets.

I have several used belts that were changed only for maintenance purposes and they have a rather common 8-M pitch, and I have some sprocket pullies for them, but the pullies would need extensive rework to fit my application. Because this is really a prototype, I decided to fabricate my own t-belt sprocket teeth on the existing flat pullies. This was pretty simple as the pulley circumference of 3” was almost perfect, & 1/8” rod is a nearly perfect fit to use as teeth for the sprockets.

I used a piece of timing belt as a guide and simply welded the teeth into place on each end.

             

                  


Alignment of the pullies is a bit challenging, but it works pretty well.

With slightly out-of -round sprocket pullies & without a truly solid framework, there is deflection in the axles & motor mounting that causes the belt to slack off and snap back tight, so I installed a belt tensioner on the slack side of the belt between the motor & load.

The T-belt works well, and now the rotational speed is MUCH steadier. This has completely eliminated the belt slippage I experienced previously which was caused by the intermittent torque load.

I purposely started this T-belt testing with the flexplates in sync so that it would put excessive pulsing strain on the motor drive, and it has proven to be capable of handling the pulsing variations in load quite successfully.

The better it works, the more mechanical faults become evident, that is why this slow progression is absolutely necessary. If I started out with a reactionless drive unit that functioned perfectly, how would I ever understand all the things that make it work, and the things that will stop it from working?

#3 on the To-Do List… Done… But now an additional To-Do…

The updated “To Do” list:
1- A better locking mechanism for the sun gears to the axles.
2- A way to vary the sun gear timing by adjusting axle position.
3- A different drive system from the motor to the plates, maybe a double-sided timing belt or a roller chain drive.
4- Explore the possibility of having sun & planet gears on both sides of the plates.
5- Mount in a motor vehicle for road testing.
6- Change synchronization of CW turning plates to reduce pulsation.

Here is a first test run video with the motor running on low speed and the unit not being allowed to move.


Page 15, Stability vs. Instability & Revised “To Do” List

April 21, 2020
The working phrase of the day is: “There is a necessary dynamic stability in the build as well as a necessary dynamic instability. An Excess of either is intolerable”.

I learned a few things today. Some of these things I already knew, but was not giving proper consideration, others that have formed new ideas and will be added to my list of things needing exploration.
Today I made it into a 3-wheeler, two flexplates turning clockwise (CW) & one turning counterclockwise (CCW). The two CW plates are timed exactly together while the CCW is still 90 degrees behind them. The amount of forward push effectively doubled, coming from the pair of CW plates. And the single CCW quite effectively extends the time that the machine pushes between “pauses”. This tells me that configuration is of the upmost importance!
I learned quite a bit about this machine’s timing & it seems that it can be correlated to a spark ignition type IC engine’s timing (cam, tach, dwell & timing correlation).  
The obvious list is as follows.
           Inertial Drive:                           IC Engine:          (Definition):
           Flexplate timing                     Camshaft Timing   (Timing gears, chain or belt)                               
           Planet Timing                         Ignition Timing      (Distributor timing)                  
           Inner Stop to Outer Stop       Ignition Dwell       (Ignition coil saturation time)                
           RPMs                                   RPMs                  (Speed of rotation)    
  

  

I also had an issue with the belt slipping. At first I didn’t notice the slippage, but there was suddenly a problem with the drive oscillating back and forth. Tightening the belt corrected this oscillation.

This has led me to the tentative conclusion that dynamic rotation speed is very important during the time when the weight is between the inner & outer stops. 

I cannot help but wonder if changing motor speed at precise times could enhance the functionality… The velocity of the weight is already being manipulated by the orbital path, why not expand on this premise.
I believe that the intermittently slipping belt (caused by weak motor mounting) was what would intermittently cause poor performance. I also believe that it could be an important discovery! A feature that could be added as a performance enhancer if the timing of speed differences were reversed!
The updated “To Do” list:
1- A better locking mechanism for the sun gears to the axles.
2- A way to vary the sun gear timing by adjusting axle position.
3- A different drive system from the motor to the plates, maybe a double-sided timing belt or a roller chain drive.
4- Explore the possibility of having sun & planet gears on both sides of the plates.
5- Mount in a motor vehicle for road testing.

Page 12, Phase 2, Refinement of the Drive & “Successful Failures”

April 7, 2020


The refining of this drive system requires intimate knowledge of what does NOT work! There have been many tries & fails throughout multiple projects on my path to this point.
It is very difficult to remain optimistic through multiple obstacles, many times where I would have to avoid the deep, sucking hole of self-doubt & even depression.
 Every time something that I thought should work, but didn’t, I HAD to see it as a “Successful Failure”. That means there is no such thing as a failure, only the opportunity to learn. That is something which made me a great diagnostician in the auto repair industry for so many years (or, so I am told).
Fortunately, that makes the successful tests, changes & experiments that much more gratifying.
Now begins the refinement of this reactionless drive into a final product that can be a useful addition to mankind’s goals of energy independence as well as cheap & efficient propulsion for virtually all types of transportation.
This refinement now begins:
The components that need immediate work are twofold, first is the “stop” taking the place of the outer planet trap & second is accurately controlling the timing of the planetary gears.
First will be the stop. I am presently working to increase the efficiency of the pendulum weight stop and hopefully impart the weight’s force more effectively.

Page 11, Recap & “State of the Project”

To recap where this all stands at this point in its development:

1-      Two matching 13” gears (automotive flexplates) are attached to 3” smooth idler pullies which are mounted to a beam so that the teeth are engaged between them ant they can spin freely on the idler pully bearings. These flexplate assemblies will be referred to as “Main Gears”.
The axles that the Main Gears rotate on are 5/8” threaded rod, and they need to extend through the Main Gears enough to be used as inner planet traps (6” to 10”). A 3 or 4 inch long piece of 5/8” heater hose is slid onto each Main Gear axle for the weight to contact.
2-      A 3” flat pully is mounted to a used Honda windshield wiper motor to drive the assembly via a serpentine type automotive belt.
3-      Four 3-1/2” flat idler pullies are used for the sun & planet gears. Short (approx. 1”) pieces of 3/8” diameter steel rod is welded to the OD of the pullies, transforming them into coarse toothed spur gears. One “tooth” on each gear is made from a 3” long bolt (3/8” coarse thread) to act as both a tooth and the pendulum weight pivot. These pivot bolts have the hex head removed.
4-      A pendulum weight is attached to the pivot bolts via a steel bushing (1/4” water pipe cut to length and drilled out with a 3/8” drill) welded to the hex head of a 3/8” x 2” bolt. The weights are fabricated from three steel squares (2” x 2” x 3/8”) placed together and welded. A hole is drilled & tapped in the center on one side to accommodate the bolt. A lock nut is threaded onto the bolt and then the weight is threaded on. Once in position, the lock nut is tightened against the weight block to maintain its position with the pivot bushing. The overall length of the pendulum assembly is approximately 4-1/8” and the length from the center of the pivot is approximately 3-3/4”.
5-      “Outer Plant Traps”… That is what Roy Thornson called them, are restraints for the pendulum weights. Roy’s logs & patent documents, call for an external restraint to catch (or trap) the weight after it has left the inner trap and then release it at the correct time to allow the weight to swing outward with a snapping motion. I have experimented with different designs and for this incarnation of this machine it is unnecessary.
What IS ABSOLUTELY necessary is the Planet gear mounted stop!!! It functions to keep the pendulum weight from swinging too far when it is coming off the inner trap and it is an essential component that “catches or stops the weight when it is swinging outward.
This is very important, the stop and the weight MUST come together when the weight is the farthest from the planet gear’s axle! Without this, much of the functionality is lost!
6-      Timing is critical! There is the Main Gear timing vs the planetary gear timing. Originally the Main Gears were timed together (because the “push” is not perfectly straight) so that one would counter the other’s sideways push. We aren’t building this for use in space at this time, so, this is absolutely not necessary!!! By offsetting the timing by approximately 90 degrees the pulsation effect is reduced and thrust is increased.
Timing on the sun & planet set is quite critical and is set by placing the gears into a position where the planet’s axle, the weight’s pivot bolt, and the Main Gear axle are in alignment and that alignment (if using a straight edge) is approximately 45 degrees BEFORE top dead center (when the alignment would point straight forward). There have been incarnations of this build where that has not been the case but that was much different.
7-      The speed of rotation (RPM) is an integral part of the unit’s operation and the lengths, sizes, weights, and timing are a choreographed “dance” which requires the speed to remain constant in order to achieve & maintain flow. Different motors, battery voltages, drag coefficients, etc. can & will affect the RPM and may require slight timing changes to compensate.
Whew… That’s quite a recap… It sure didn’t SEEM that — um, “involved”…

Page 10, Back to v2 Weights With Improved Stops & Longer Pivot Bolts

April 3, 2020

I went back to V2 weights, removed the magnet from both and welded a “bump” onto each of the pivoting bolts so that they contact the stops firmly when the weights are in their fully extended positions. After retiming the sun & planet gears to use this setup, I am reasonably pleased with the amount of thrust.

Page 9, Square Bar Weights Not Beneficial

April 2, 2020

I am not so sure that the new pendulum weights are going to work out. I have both weights installed & I have replaced their pivot bolts with somewhat longer ones so I can get a full nut on them. I also had to reinforce the stops because they were getting bent. Since I have them set 90 degrees out of phase there is no way for the weights to contact one another, so I am using both planet gears without the raised pivot.
Forward thrust (with V3 weights) is present but is not as good as I was hoping. I may go back to the V2 weights.

Page 8, Square Pendulum Weight & Planet Mounted “Stop”

March 30, 2020

The pendulum weight itself has changed several times & now I will try out another change. This latest incarnation (Version 3) replaces the threaded mounting pivoting on a steel bushing with a solid 1”x1” square steel rod weighing in at approximately 1 pound. The swing rate is actually slow enough that unit rpm will be limited and an outer trap may be of a simple momentary contact design.
 
 

Page 7, Limits of Magnetic Type Traps (Stops)

March 29, 2020

The outer stops/traps are the next (last?) item to get working properly. Roy (Thornson) stated that the planet traps (stops) could be either mechanical or electromagnetic and that they should act as a braking system that would momentarily restrain the pendulum weights and release them at the correct moment in the planet’s orbit & rotation. When the weight is released it snaps outward in the direction of desired movement pulling the unit forward.
Now having tried several variations of stops/planet traps, I can see that this is a very important part of the unit that enhances its functionality as much if not more than any other single component does. It seems to be all about “steering” the weight into a position where it can “whip” outward at the correct time.
At this time, several methods have been attempted to steer (or trap) the weight(s) with some limited success. So far, the most effective method uses permanent magnets mounted on an adjustable steel bar and on the weight. When running at low speeds (30 rpm or less) magnets placed in attraction steer the weights into position and whip outward as soon as the weight is pulled away slightly. When the rpm is increased to the 40-60 rpm range, more magnets must be added in repulsion and placed slightly outboard from the attraction magnets. When rpm is in the 60-100 rpm range the weight will not always be properly directed demonstrating the need for a much more robust method for the unit to be used effectively through multiple rpm ranges allowing for a more adjustable thrust output by simple rpm adjustment.
I Think the pendulum weights and their stops/traps/brakes need to be an integrated design where each is separate, yet they need to function as a single, independent unit when functioning.

Page 6, Minor Distraction & Understanding Leads to Improvement

March 26, 2020

A minor distraction has shown that the statement “It’s about the impact” is partially correct. Impact is very important to creating an inertial thrust device with enough efficiency to be worthwhile, however,impact alone does not make a viable working unit!
It is very apparent that if the centripetal push is in opposition to impact push the two will attempt to cancel each other out.
A POP device was created with a 2-speed motor which freewheeled at either 60 or 80 rpms. A loose bracket with a sliding bar was fastened across the axle. Each end of the bar had a bearing on it and the whole assembly inserted in a plastic housing.
Operation: The bar would impact the housing and be pushed away from the impact and the reaction pushed the unit in the direction of the impact… However, by pushing the bar into an opposing position it instilled the centripetal force in the opposite direction. By indexing the position of the housing into a more “sideways” push, the impact was able to push forward with slightly more force creating a very weak forward motion.
Only if the impact and inertial (centripetal) force are within the same 180-degree arc is there enough usable linear push.
 Using this knowledge in the Thornson style drive system:
The inner stop/planet trap is reasonably simple (at this point in the development) and serves for impact and keeps the weight from crossing the center of the sun gear.
The outer planet trap is much more complex, in function as well as in form. Stopping movement of the weight is not a viable option but a brake creates impact and directs the movement into a position for the desired “whip-like motion” which is effectively another impact (on the pivot pin of the weight). It is this “virtual impact sequence” that makes up most of the linear force used in this drive, the Thornson, and all Thornson-like drives.
The diversion was informative and now can be seen as a useful tool in the overall understanding of this technology. Understanding leads to improvement!